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ICAR - Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering & Technology
भा.कृ.अनु.प.- केन्द्रीय कटाई उपरान्त अभियांत्रिकी एवं प्रौद्योगिकी संस्थान AN ISO 9001:2015 CERTIFIED INSTITUTION (Formerly ISO 9001:2008 Certified)
about ciphet

Food Grains & Oilseeds Processing

Ongoing Institute

Studies on processing of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) for production of guar gum.
Er. R.K. Vishwakarma (PI), Dr. S.K. Nanda (Co-PI) and Dr. U.S. Shivhare (Co-PI)

1) To study and identify suitable mechanism for dehusking of guar seeds
2) Design, development/ adoption of machine for enhanced recovery of guar splits from guar seed
3) To device a process for producing food grade guar gum powder from guar splits


1) The existing guar industries in India were surveyed to collect the information on industrial processing of guar.
2) Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of guar were determined.
3) EMC of guar seed and Guar Gum Splits was determined at four temperatures 10, 20, 30 and 40 C and five relative humidity conditions.
4) Moisture absorption behaviour of Guar seed was studied at five temperatures 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 C. Seed moisture increased rapidly up to 120 minutes and then decreased gradually. After 210 minutes, the moisture absorption rate was decreased. The final moisture content after soaking the seed for 24 hours was 67.36% (w.b.).
5) The dehulling process for guar was developed and optimized


1) Vishwakarma RK, Nanda SK, Shivhare US & Patil RT 2009. Status on post harvest technology of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) in India. Agricultural Mechanisation in Asia, Africa and Latin America, 40 (1), 65-72.
2) Vishwakarma RK, Shivhare US & Nanda SK 2010. Moisture adsorption isotherms of guar (Cyamposis tetragonoloba) grain and guar gum splits. LWT-Food Science and Technology. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2010.09.002.
Process for Dehulling Guar Seed for Refined Guar Gum Split Production. (Patent Application No.1283/DEL/2007).

Production of Potato flour and starch and it's use for product diversification and value addition.
Dr. S. K. Tyagi (PI), Dr. Mridula Devi (Co-PI), Dr. Davinder Dhingra (Co-PI) and Dr. Rajbir Singh (Co-PI)

1) To standardize the novel process of making potato flour and starch
2) To establish a pilot plant for making potato flour with control starch combination
3) To prepare potato flour incorporated namkeen bhujia, gulab jamun, paratha and their quality evaluation


1) Process of making potato flour and starch was standardized.
2) Pilot plant for making potato flour is under fabrication.
3) A unit of potato washer has been completed.

Evaluation of screw press mechanism for oil expelling as effect of process parameters for high value crops
D Jain and S. Balasubramanian

1) Study the engineering and thermal properties in relations to the higher oil extraction of apricot

2) Study the theoretical and experimental aspect of heat transfer between the processing equipments, oil and oil cake streams during the processing of apricot seeds in an expeller

3) A theoretical study on prediction of extrusion pressure (and compression ratio) and oil flow rate in a screw press for known specifications and the experimental validations.


Set up the gadget for measuring thermal conductivity of oil seeds. Trials were made to find out the oil yield point using texture analyzer. The oil seed exerts more load the available load cell (50 kg). Oil yield point was measured for mustard and sunflower seeds using 500 kg load cell and found in the range of 180-300 kg and 270-380 kg, respectively. Further experimental set up and probe velocity study requiring for mathematical modeling are under trail.

Development of technology for health foods from legumes and millets using food extrusion systems
Dr. S. Balasubramanian, Dr. K.K. Singh

1) To evaluate the effects of decortication level and particle size of raw materials on extrudate characteristics.

2) To optimize extrusion process conditions for the production of nutritionally enriched extrudates.

3) To optimize post extrusion process to prepare health foods.


Different Ready-to-Eat snack foods were developed from combinations of selected cereals (rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, ragi) with different dehulled legumes (black gram, green gram, lentil and peas) using low cost collet type food extruder. Different extrudates were prepared keeping constant feed rate (25 kg/h) and feed moisture (14% wb) at different legumes incorporation levels (0,5,10 and 15%). Rheological properties of extrudates flour and raw composite flour were evaluated with RVA indicates the low viscosity profile for all the extrudates as compared to their raw composite flour. The results revealed that cereals blended with legumes because of their low viscosity can be used for enriched foods specifically for infants as rice based foods. Degree of gelatinization of rice, wheat, maize, sorghum and ragi were estimated in the range of 36-22%. The extrudates made of cereals alone showed higher value of gelatinization than other incorporation levels and type of legumes. It is revealed that the degree of gelatinization, WAI and WSI were affected by legume incorporation level. Nutritional analysis viz., protein, crude fibre, ash and reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars were performed for all these extrudate. All extrudates were scored between 6 and 8 on 9 point hedonic scale for their organoleptic quality, indicating that the extrudates were acceptable as ready to eat breakfast cereals and snack foods. Optimization of health food with addition of low calorie sugars and SMP with extrudates flour. Engineering drawing and profile and economic feasibility were prepared.

Development of dairy analogues from peanut kernel and utilization of de-oiled cake for food purposes
Dr. D N Yadav and Dr S N Bhowmik

1) To screen commercially available groundnut varieties for the production of dairy analogues.
2) To develop a commercial process for the production of ground nut milk with reduced nutty flavour and a process protocol for the production of dairy analogues.
3) To develop a suitable process for edible ground nut deoiled cake production and its utilization for food purposes.


1) Different peanut varieties were screened and variety TG-37 was found best for peanut milk whereas variety GG-20 was found suitable for peanut paneer.
2) A process, based on pressure blanching of peanuts for inactivation of lipoxygenase in peanuts before soaking have been optimized successfully as well as removal of unwanted (nutty odour) from peanut milk was done with steam spurging while deodorizing. Thus prepared peanut milk had negligible nutty odour. Various dairy analogues from peanut milk like peanut beverage, Curd (Dahi), Paneer, Lassi, Shrikhand have been developed successfully. Technology for the same has been transferred to upcoming entrepreneurs from different parts of the country.
3) Development of low fat paneer from partially de-oiled peanut cake.


 Presentation:D. N. Yadav, K. K. Singh, Hradesh Rajput, S.N.Bhowmik, R.T.Patil, 2010 Development of peanut milk based fermented curd. Proceedings of the 44th Annual Convention and Symposium of Indian Society of Agricultural Engineers, Jan 28-30, New Delhi, India

Development of process and technology for dry degerming of maize at small scale
Dr. P. Barnwal and Dr. Dattatreya M. Kadam

1) To design and develop a maize degermer for separation of germ from maize to obtain degermed maize flour.
2) Performance evaluation of the developed maize degermer.
3) To study the storability of degermed maize flour and utilization of maize germ.


1) A small capacity maize degermer has been designed and fabricated in Institute workshop at CIPHET, Ludhiana.
2) Experiments were carried out for degermination of maize on maize degermer for four moisture levels (16.3 %, 17.7 %, 19.5% and 22.2 % w.b.) and three speeds (822 rpm, 1370 rpm, 2283 rpm).
3) It was found that higher recovery of maize germ and maize grit were obtained at the moisture content of 19.5 % w.b. and 1370 rpm with capacity (feed rate) of 35 kg/h.
4) Shelf life study of degermed maize flour is under progress (Storage interval: 10 days; Storage period: 6 months and packaging material: LDPE, HDPE and Al foil).

Design, development and evaluation of composite dhal mill
Dr. D.M. Kadam (P.I. w.e.f April 2009), Er. R.K. Vishwakarma (PI up to April 2009) and Dr R K Goyal (PI up to February 2009), Dr.(Mrs) Mridula Devi (Co-PI up to February 2009)

1) To design and develop a dhal mill to get optimum residence time inside the dehulling machinefinal product.
2) To develop a composite pigeon pea mini dhal mill.
3) Performance evaluation of the mill and studies on quality of the final product.


Developed integrated carborundum mini dhal mill for pigeon pea.
The machine consists of feed hopper, emery cylindrical and concave of perforated mild steel. This machine has two specific features (emery made of three different grades of carborundum and stoppers inside the concave to increase the residence time inside the machine).
The Mini Dhal Mill has the dimension: Length 1000 mm, width 555 mm, Height 1225 mm, abrasive circle surface perimeter is 1100 mm.
It is driven by 3 hp motor which rotates roller at 615 rpm. The power is transmitted from motor to roller through v-belt drive pulley.
The emery roller is a mild steel cylinder having 30 cm diameter and 75 cm length on which emery is pasted. At the feed section Grade A carborundum followed by Grade B and at outlet section Grade C is pasted. First 25 cm of the roller is pasted with 18-grade emery, middle 25 cm with 24-grade emery and last 25 cm with 32 grade emery.
The material is fed at the start of the roller where 18-grade emery is pasted. The capacity of the mini dhal mill with above roller was 100 kg/h.
The preliminary tests on this small capacity mill developed at CIPHET indicate in single pass it can produce commercial grade dal upto 73% where as in single roller small capacity meal single pass produces less than 50% dal.


Goyal, R.K., Vishwakarma, R.K. and Wanjari, O.D. 2010. Effect of moisture content on pitting and milling efficiency of pigeon pea grain. Food and Bioprocess Technology. (2010) 3:146–149
DOI 10.1007/s11947-009-0255-2
Dattatreya M. Kadam (2010). Pulse Processing and Value Addition (Lead Paper) presented at Dept of Plant Breeding and Genetics, PAU, Ludhiana in
the occasion of Brainstorming session on Pulse Processing during 21-22 February 2010.
Goyal, R.K., Vishwakarma, R.K. and Mridula, D. 2008. Some Physico-chemical Properties of Pigeon Pea Dhal of India. Journal of Agricultural Engineering (Submitted in 2008).